Monday, August 24, 2020

The Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison - Essay Example He resembles the infant youngster with all out loss of memory, overlooks his name, weak to appreciate discourse, and an indistinct character. This birth includes no guardians and he cooperates with the specialists desolate. The storyteller is fairly trapped by the haughtiness of the clinical science, and the specialists encourage him to set up his own new character, as he has no past at this point. The personality forced on him in cultural terms has stopped to exist. It is another demonstration in an amazing show, which has no associations with the prior demonstrations. He is with no help and has lost availability. His enduring identified with his character has not finished and he is experiencing another sort of torment, taking into account the forced feeling of inadequacy. Since the storyteller has lost the capacity to talk, the specialists can't separate any data about his character. Without any narrative evidence about the forerunners of the patient, the specialists show up to the ir own decisions dependent on their insight into racial history and racial generalizations. As the storyteller endures the seizures of electric stun treatment, the specialists note mockingly that dark individuals have magnificent musicality. This unfavorable remark is the indicator for the thinking level about the white specialists and how bigot convictions are instilled in them. Lobotomy scene is critical as it makes two distinct characters out of one person. The storyteller has lost always his dark character set up through the chronicled procedures of a few centuries. 2. Mary Rambo is an extraordinary character and the storyteller is captivated by her impartial however remarkable cultural manner. In the grimy cultural responses that went up against him regularly, Mary Lambo is a special case. She treats him with most extreme expressions of love and gives him food and sanctuary. Her sympathetic nature of willing acknowledgment with no reservations fills trusts in the life of the storyteller. Mary does

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Telecommunication Industry for Rapid Market - myassignmenthelp

Question: Examine about theTelecommunication Industry for Rapid Market. Answer: The expanding utilization of present day innovation and the fast developing business sector rivalry are the two essential factors that are liable for the development and extension of the media transmission industry. One of the remarkable attributes of media transmission industry is that it utilizes optical filaments as a mechanism of transmission of information as opposed to utilizing contorted pair or coaxial links (Ziemann et al. 2013). Furthermore, the utilization of ISDN or Inter Services Digital Network is making the business an altogether digitalized framework and is improving the quality just as speed of the computerized correspondence. Thirdly, the media transmission industry moves high information association and volume through fast line. For short exchanges, the low information volume and typically a fixed length of the message alongside modest number of discourse cycles are been performed. Best and most noticeably awful assistance rehearses inside the media transmission industry The significant telecom specialist co-ops in Australia are Vodafone, Testra and Optus (Beltran 2014). The 4p of administration promoting (Best Practices) Item The three significant media transmission specialist co-ops of Australia give in excess of 30 distinct administrations to their clients separately. The essential items and administrations incorporate computerized TV internet providers, fixed line and versatile communication and marked handsets. These are the most utilized and most crucial administrations that each man in the present time needs so as to guarantee smooth streaming of his day by day exercises. Spot So as to guarantee that the clients are effectively gaining admittance to their administrations and items, Vodafone, Telstra and Optus opened up a few client care contact focuses just as connected with a few distributers in the city. These are helping in the accessibility of the items for the clients Advancement Every one of the specialist co-ops utilizes simple and productive limited time techniques so as to arrive at their objective clients. They utilize banners, hoardings, TV, print media and banners and so on. With the equivalent, the limited time exercises are very attractive and intriguing. For instance, the VAS administrations of the Vodafone Australia are advanced by utilizing zoozoo promotions (Desai 2013). Moreover, every one of their sites comprises of downloadable recordings, backdrops, ringtones and so forth., which permits the clients to spread the messages all around. Evaluating The costs change distinctively for various types of items and administrations and that too at a truly moderate range. The average citizens don't have to dive up their pockets so as to get engaged and associate with their darlings. Most noticeably awful Practices: It has been discovered from the ongoing review that the media transmission industry of Australia (telco) was experiencing through significant level of client objections. The underlying drivers of the protests were the ridiculous buyer desire, because of the nature of the data accessible for the clients pre-scale and in light of getting suddenly high measure of bills by the clients. This has brought about affecting the conduct of the purchasers, for example, decision over-burden, defaults, enrichment, heuristics, confining inclinations and hyperbolic limiting. By and large consumer loyalty: The general consumer loyalty with the offered support of the Australian media transmission industry keeps on being high, i.e., 66% starting at 2016 (Kim, Kim and Wachter 2013). One in each four clients are purportedly extremely fulfilled and two in each five are fulfilled by the overview directed in 2016. Notwithstanding, 14% of the clients are disappointed with the administrations in a few or the other way. References: Beltrn, F., 2014. Fiber-to-the-home, rapid and national broadband plans: Tales from Down Under.Telecommunications Policy,38(8-9), pp.715-729. Desai, M.K., 2013. Indian Media Histories of Last Two Decades: Story of Innovations.Journal of Global Communication,6(1), pp.44-50. Kim, Y.H., Kim, D.J. what's more, Wachter, K., 2013. An investigation of versatile client commitment (MoEN): Engagement inspirations, saw worth, fulfillment, and proceeded with commitment intention.Decision Support Systems,56, pp.361-370. Ziemann, O., Krauser, J., Zamzow, P.E. furthermore, Daum, W., 2013.POF-polymer optical filaments for information correspondence. Springer Science Business Media.

Saturday, July 18, 2020

How ADHD Can Affect Peer Relationships

How ADHD Can Affect Peer Relationships ADHD School Print How ADHD Can Affect Peer Relationships Ways ADHD Related Difficulties Can Affect Social Behaviors By Keath Low Keath Low, MA, is a therapist and clinical scientist with the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities at the University of North Carolina. She specializes in treatment of ADD/ADHD. Learn about our editorial policy Keath Low Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on June 19, 2019 ADHD Overview Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment Living With In Children Wan Mohd Saifudin W Ibrahim / EyeEm / Getty Images Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience problems in their relationships with peers. As a parent, it can be very difficult to see your child struggle to make and keep friends. You may find that your son or daughter is not receiving invitations to birthday parties of classmates and is seldom asked for play dates or sleepovers. For your child, this rejection and isolation can be doubly painful over time. In order for friendships to grow and be maintained, a child must be able to control impulses, take turns, cooperate, share, listen, be empathetic, attentive and focused, communicate effectively with others, be aware of and respond to social cues, and have an ability to problem-solve situations and resolve conflicts as they ariseâ€"all skill areas that can be challenging for a child with ADHD. How ADHD Related Difficulties Affect Social Behaviors Children with ADHD often interact in ways that can provoke negative reactions from peers. Some may try to dominate play or engage in ways that are too aggressive, demanding, and intrusive. They may have trouble joining in with peers in the things their peers like to do. Instead, they may want to make their own set of rules, or engage in bossy, unfair or non-compliant ways, and generally may have a hard time knowing how to cooperate with other kids the same age. Many kids with ADHD have a hard time picking up on and reading social cues. Others may become bored easily, get distracted and check out on friends. Problems with attention and self-control can interfere with opportunities to acquire social skills through observational learning. Many kids with ADHD also have a hard time managing difficult feelings and can very quickly become overwhelmed, frustrated, and emotionally reactive. Impulsive reactions, hyperactive, or distracted behaviors may be viewed as not only frustrating and irritating, but also as insensitive to the needs of others, and so the child is further avoided and rejected and deemed less and less likable within the group. Skills Learned From Peer Groups Experiences and relationships within a peer group can have a profound effect on a childs development. Through these connections, a child learns how to have reciprocal friendships and how to make and maintain healthy relationships with others. Through peer groups, a child learns the rules and skills of social exchange including cooperation, negotiation, and conflict resolution. Unfortunately, symptoms of ADHD can impair a childs ability to observe, understand, and respond to his or her social environment. Because of difficulties with self-control, many kids with ADHD tend to react without thinking through the consequences of their behavior or of the impact their behavior can have on others around them. In addition, they can have a hard time learning from past experiences. This disruptive or insensitive behavior is often viewed as purposeful and deliberate; as a result, the child with ADHD may be labeled as a troublemaker and be further avoided and quickly rejected by the wider group. Once stuck with such a label, it can become even more difficult for the child to overcome this negative reputation and connect positively with peers even as he or she begins to make positive changes in social skills. Some kids with ADHD isolate themselves because of repeated failures in friendships, feelings of wariness and reticence with others, and plummeting feelings of self-confidence. Problems are then compounded because when children avoid or disengage from others, they no longer have opportunities to learn adaptive skills, and as a result, they develop ever lower peer competencies. These deficits in social skills can certainly take a toll and have a negative effect on a child as he or she grows and moves into adolescence and adulthood. A Word From Verywell If your child is struggling with peer relationships, know that it is important that you target peer problems directly and over the long term. The good news is that you can help your child develop these social skills and competencies. Being aware of the social difficulties that can be associated with ADHD and understanding how your childs own ADHD is negatively impacting his or her relationships is the first step. With this information, you can then begin to move forward in a solution-focused way to help your child develop positive social and friendship skills.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Customs Union and Turkish Foreign Policy - 1092 Words

The Customs Union and Turkish Foreign Policy Economical developments in Turkey and the world keep moving in an incredible speed. With the increasing world trade volume and gradually intensifying rivalry, companies’ efforts for strengthening their market shares are increasing day by day. Being able to keep alive in the middle of this rivalry depends on being successful in the international platform. The industrialized countries aiming to get out of this situation with the minimum loss have started to give more significance to their economical security. It can be seen that preventions such as goods and amount restriction has decreased and local commercial and political integrations has become stronger during this current globalization period. The locations of the countries vary constantly by either participating to global organizations (World Trade Organization) or to regional formations (Europe Union and The Customs Union). In this context, the most significant economical and political consolidation that we face among Europe countries is EU. One of the basic foundations of partnership relationship between Turkey and EU is The Customs Union. The Customs Union process was triggered by the Protocol of Katma, which was signed between Turkey and European Economic Community. With Katma Protocol’s coming into force on 1 January 1973, Turkey got the right of reaching industry goods of Community market without customs.Show MoreRelatedHow The Argument Supporting Two Cyprus States1519 Words   |  7 Pageslargest driving factor is the Turkish and Greek ethnic divide. The two ethnic groups remain distinct, which are divided on linguistic, cultural, and religious lines (Meier, 457). The Greek Cypriots practice Greek orthodox and Turkish Cypriots practice Islam. Furthermore, both groups refer to Greece or Turkey as â€Å"motherlands† to their identities. (Meier, 457). Traditional family customs have discouraged the intermarriage of Greek and Turkish populations (Meier 461). Turkish and Greek Cypriot communitiesRead MoreInternational Trade in Turkey2333 Words   |  10 Pages......................................................................5Imports.......................................................................7Trade balance.............................................................8Trade agreements and po licies.................................8International Trade strategy...................................10Conclusion................................................................11 Turkey at a glanceTurkey, officially known as Republic of Turkey isRead MoreThe Economic Impact of Globalization on Turkey6413 Words   |  26 Pagesenvironment is more challenging for Turkish banks, because of weak economic growth and ongoing financial market volatility. Turkish banks have become better capitalised (at 17.5% at end-June 2008) and less reliant on wholesale funding (13%) since the 2001 crisis. We believe the asset quality deterioration is the main risk for the sector. The sector has experienced higher default rates in credit cards and consumer loans in 2007 and 1H08. Although most Turkish banks are expecting higher NPLs forRead MoreThe Economic Impact of Globalization on Turkey6421 Words   |  26 Pagesenvironment is more challenging for Turkish banks, because of weak economic growth and ongoing financial market volatility. Turkish banks have become better capitalised (at 17.5% at end-June 2008) and less reliant on wholesale funding (13%) since the 2001 crisis. We believe the asset quality deterioration is the main risk for the sector. The sector has experienced higher default rates in credit cards and consumer loans in 2007 and 1H08. Although most Turkish banks are expecting higher NPLs for year-endRead MoreFree Trade : More Competitive Domestic Markets2000 Words   |  8 PagesHowever, in this study, it is aimed to deal with only trade which is quite controversial subject in terms of applied policy choices whether more liberal or more protectionist. For the purpose of this tariffs and quotas are chosen as an example of protectionist policies and Turkey is thought as case country in terms of membership of Customs Union. It will be argued that free trade policies may not seem to have destructive impacts on domestic markets of developing countries. On the contrary, this may helpRead MoreTurkeys Accession to the European Union1116 Words   |  5 PagesTurkey’s application for associate membership in the European Economic Community(EEC) in 1959. Turkey applied for full membership in the EEC in 1987 but did n ot gain candidate status until 1999. Since 1999, relations between Turkey and the European Union (EU) have gained momentum, and Turkey’s EU accession negotiations began in 2005. Since that time, discussions about the implications of Turkey’s prospective EU membership have become more serious and extensive in both Turkey and the EU.the potentialRead MoreTurkey Accession to EU3740 Words   |  15 Pagesthe European Union is at the center of the controversy surrounding the EU s enlargement. Given the disparate histories of the EU member states, Turkey s own complex and battle-scarred history, and nationalistic considerations, the question of whether Turkey will ultimately be accepted as an EU member, with full rights and privileges, is one to which there are few clear-cut answers. The debate surrounding this issue continues to gain momentum both in Turkey and in the European Union. France, withRead MoreSecularity Governance in Turkey1802 Words   |  7 PagesRomans. The capture of the city by the Ottoman Empire, however, brought it back to Eastern control. Unfortunately, the Ottoman Empire began slowly declining for several centuries, finally bringing the fall of the empire and thus establishing the Turkish Republic in 1923. This modern nation-state was forged by the reforms of Mustafa Kemal. Kemal sought to impose a secular— rather, laà ¯cità ©, democratic system, in a predominantly Islamic nation; this began Turkey’s course toward progression and modernizationRead MoreEuropean Turkey Relations : Turkey3651 Words   |  15 PagesEuropean Turkey Relations Introduction Half a century ago Turkey admitted to the European Union membership and until now Turkey didn’t have a full membership. The EU fears Turkey and Turkey is eager to join the Christen club. Therefore, the EU – Turkey relations went through several turns that either stalemated or encouraged the process of admitting Turkey to the EU membership. The EU-Turkey relation is important for both parties, because it involves mutual security, economic and strategic benefitsRead MoreTurkey : A Growing Proportion Of Young Population1780 Words   |  8 Pagesencouraging for the employment rate in Turkey. Companies should take this into consideration and create schemes and training programmes for younger people willing to work. With Turkey predominantly following a Muslim culture, foreign businesses looking to invest in the Turkish Market must consider the opportunities and threats regarding this. Also taking into consideration family values and cultural traditions. Businesses from the Arab world would be able to conduct business with more ease than a European

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Symbolic Interaction My Favorite Sociological Theory

My Favorite Sociological Theory Authors name Authors institutional affiliation Authors note My Favorite Sociological Theory There were several theories that I found interesting as a part of the course, yet the theory that I connected with most personally was Symbolic Interaction. This theory was established first by George Herbert Mead, who coined the phrase symbolic interactionism first. The theory has been present in the field of sociology for several decades, and after the death of Mead, other sociologists took on the theory in their own works, studies, and theories. This theory is one of my favorites for a few reasons, one of which is because I believe I have seen it at work in my own life and in the interactions of others in their lives. I also agree with the validity of this theory because I feel that it coincides with other theories in other fields, such as psychology. There are psychologists, such as Freudian psychologists and Lacanian psychologists that have theories that are similar or analogous to the sociological theory of symbolic interaction. The similarities I see with such theories in psychology are those that argue about language, behavior and the unconscious. Everything we say and do is an expression of the unconscious, mostly without our conscious knowledge. Every word we speak and every action we take is dense with meanings, including the ones we intend and the ones we do not intend or of which we are unaware. Furthermore, these theoriesShow MoreRelatedSociologial Analysis of Christmas844 Words   |  4 PagesTITLE- SOCIOLOGIAL ANALYSIS OF CHRISTMAS In this paper I will discuss Social Theories such as Structural Functionalism, Conflict theory; with emphasis on Karl Marx’s early work and how it relates to the conflict theory and Symbolic interaction. I intend to define and discuss relevant sociological terms of these theories and how these theories could apply to my favorite holiday which is Christmas. Structural Functionalism as defined by Functionolists such as Auguste Comte and Herbert SpencerRead MoreMajor Theoretical Sociological Perspectives: Similarities and Differences1507 Words   |  7 Pagesregards to social issues? They are Symbolic Interactionism perspectives, Functionalism perspectives, and Conflict Theory perspectives. These perspectives offer sociologists abstract examples for explaining how society affects people, and vice versa. Each perspective individually theorizes society, social forces, and human behavior. Keyword’s: Social Issues, Human Behavior Introduction This paper will explain the three known theoretical sociological perspectives in science today;Read MoreWhat I Have Learned From A Social Theory Class1240 Words   |  5 Pagessociology paper I will present what I have learned from this social theory class. We learned about many miraculous theorists such as Karl Marx, Auguste Comete, Herb Spencer, Emile Durkheim and many more theorists. I will present what I have learned by comparing and contrasting George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley. This paper will examine what both of these great theorists studied, some of their background info and theory. George Herbert Mead George Herbert Mead was born on February 27Read MoreExperience Grief, Grief And All Arrangements Are Made983 Words   |  4 Pagesyou and teaches how to hold yourself in place. When I was flying to Pakistan, I knew my grandfather was on his death bed and I knew I had to say my goodbye, but I was in denial and scared. When I reached Pakistan, first thing was I went to the hospital and saw him. He was breathing! It gave me a comfort feeling and I talked to him even if he was in a coma, but I believed he was listening. As I sat next him, I saw my dad in the distance talking to someone and telling them, â€Å"I found a spot in the graveyardRead MoreThe Blind Side Follows The True Story Of Michael1535 Words   |  7 Pagesmotives and he realizes that he is truly part of the Tuohy family. He later tells the investigator that the reason he chose Ole Miss was because that was the school his family went to. Two sociological theories that I think play well with The Blind Side is symbolic interactionism and the modernity theory. Symbolic interactionism is concerned with the ability of humans to see themselves through the eyes of others and to enact social roles based on other’s expectations. Actions, not words, provide theRead MoreTeaching Reading Comprehension And Fluency1044 Words   |  5 Pagessupport reading comprehension. As a STEM lab instructor and lover of children’s literacy, I am intrigued by the, Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading, program referenced in chapter three. I am continuously looking for ways to use literature to introduce my STEM topics. Not only are world knowledge and exposure to various genres essential elements in reading comprehension, but students should also be motiviated! Students should enjoy what they read. I appreciate how the authors refer to this as theRead MoreQualitative Research and Celebrity Endorsement24767 Words   |  100 Pageshas been targeted in this research. The research undertaken on celebrity endorsement in this paper will be useful on both academic and professional platform, as it looks into the perception of Indian consumers on celebrity endorsement, providing theory for scholarly and directives for managers and professionals 1.3  Research  Question   How does celebrity endorsement impact the perception of Indian consumers? How does it impact their buying behaviour? 8 1.4  Synopsis  of  the  Chapters   Read MoreBranding in Clothing Industry22425 Words   |  90 PagesQuantitative versus qualitative analysis 3.2.3 Reliability and validity of data 3.3 Justification of research method 3.4 Sampling 3.5 Interview schedule 3.5.1 Stage one 3.5.2 Stage two 3.5.3 Stage three 3.6 Administration 3.7 Analysis strategy 3.7.1 Grounded theory and its relationship to qualitative data analysis 3.7.2 Within-case and cross-case analysis Within-case analysis Cross-case analysis 3.8 Summary 24 24 24 24 25 26 27 29 31 31 32 34 34 34 34 35 36 37 37 Chapter 4: ResearchRead MoreA Study on Enhanced Employee Performance Through Soft Skills20707 Words   |  83 Pagessuccess. My heartfelt gratitude to Dr A. Xavier Mahimaraj, Co-ordinator of twinning program, Loyola College for his valuable contribution and continued support which he rendered to me while pursuing my MBA in this esteemed institution. I extend my sincere gratitude to Dr.P.Amuthalakshmi MA M.Phil, MBA Phd who motivated and guided me in each step of this project and who was always the source of motivation for visualisation and presentation for this project. No words would suffice to express my gratitude

A Rose for Emily Character Analysis Free Essays

Miss Emily Grierson, the protagonist of William Faulkner’s â€Å"A Rose for Emily,† is an unusual character in the sense that she is depressed, withdrawn, and ill. Isolated in her father’s decaying mansion in Jefferson, Mississippi, unwilling to accept the passing of time, Miss Emily shows several symptoms of a mental illness. Throughout the story, Miss Emily is living all alone (except for her servant, Tobe) in her deceased father’s decaying mansion. We will write a custom essay sample on A Rose for Emily Character Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now Miss Emily’s story is told by the townspeople, who are very interested in the unusual traits that Miss Emily shows. Miss Emily refuses to change with the town and the times, and stubbornly clings to the past. She is a lonely woman because her father scared all of her suitors away when she was younger. All alone and mentally ill, Miss Emily shows that she is mentally sick through her sad, stubborn efforts to cling to the past. Miss Emily shows her first signs of being unable to change with the times at the beginning of the story, when she refuses to pay her taxes and give her house a mailbox. The members of the Board of Alderman visit Miss Emily to collect her taxes, she is very offended at the action. Miss Emily insists that she is not required to pay taxes in the city of Jefferson and that the officials can speak with Colonel Sartoris about the issue. However, at the time of this conversation, Colonel Sartoris has been dead for nearly a decade. Miss Emily struggles with moving forward with time because she does not want to change. She does not want to face the fact that she is all alone and unhappy. Miss Emily is unable to cope with the loss of her father, who was the only man in her life, and this is the main cause of Miss Emily’s mental illness. The story then jumps forward about thirty years, and the townspeople recall another incident of Miss Emily being visited by town officials. At this time, Miss Emily’s father, Mr. Grierson, has just passed away, and there is an awful smell coming from the mansion. Judge Stevens, the town mayor who pity’s Miss Emily decides to solve the problem by sprinkling lime in her yard, rather than to confront her. At this point in the story, the townspeople feel sorry for Miss Emily because she is thirty years old, and still single because her father never allowed her to date or marry. The next day, the women from Jefferson pay a visit to Miss Emily to offer condolences from her father’s death. Miss Emily refuses to admit that her father is dead, and holds on to the body for three days before finally turning it over for the funeral. The smell coming from the Grierson home, most likely from her father’s decaying corpse, shows Miss Emily’s inability to let go of the past and move on with the future. Later in the story, Miss Emily becomes very friendly with a construction foreman, Homer Barron. The townspeople assume that Miss Emily is spending time with this gentleman because she was never allowed to date when her father was alive, and the pity her because Homer is below her social class. As Miss Emily and Homer Barron continue to see each other, Miss Emily goes to the local drugstore to purchase arsenic, with no explanation. The next day, the package is delivered to her home with a note saying the arsenic is for rats. After Miss Emily purchases a sliver toilet set that is monogrammed with Homer’s initials, the townspeople assume that Miss Emily and Homer have gotten married. Soon after, Homer comes home one day, and never leaves again. Miss Emily’s appearance soon decays along with her home. No one from the town ever saw Miss Emily or Homer again, until her death at age seventy-four. When the townspeople come into the Grierson home for the funeral service, the townspeople find a room that appears to have been untouched for a number of years. Inside the room, the townspeople see Homer Barron’s dead corpse laid in the bed with an iron gray hair on the pillow next to him from Miss Emily’s latter part of life. Miss Emily was unable to admit to the loss of both her father and Homer Barron because she had a hard hold on the past, and refused to let go of it until she finally died. Miss Emily was a sad character, because she was depressed, mentally ill, and unable to grasp the passage of time. It is seen by the townspeople through her actions that she was very sad and lonely, and willing to go to great lengths to keep from being alone. Faulkner showed the struggle that Miss Emily had with this through her lack of upkeep to her home, her inability to change with the town of Jefferson, and her refusal to let go of her deceased loved ones. How to cite A Rose for Emily Character Analysis, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Tensile Test Lab Report Essay Example

Tensile Test Lab Report Paper Introduction The construction materials course is an essential part of civil engineering as the strength of all structures and constructions depends on the material used. The tension test is one of the laboratories which help students develop their knowledge in this course by practice. During the laboratory a Tinnitus Olsen Tension Test equipment was used, and the test samples were from low and high carbon steel and timber with grains parallel and perpendicular to the load. Test equipment and materials The test equipment used during the laboratory is one of the Penchant Materials Testing Machines made by Tinnitus Olsen. This machine can test different types of materials and it is provided with software which gives the opportunity to users to fully control the system. Machine two different types of attachments: the first is to fix the metal samples, and second is to hold timber samples. The rate of loading can be controlled by the software. Brief comments on differences and similarities in each property for the set of materials From the tables above it can be seen that: * Low-carbon steel has the largest load and stress at elastic limit among all materials * High-carbon steel has the largest maximum load and stress among all materials * High-carbon steel has the largest failure load and nominal failure stress among all materials * Low-carbon steel has the largest true failure load among all materials * All properties is larger for timber with grains parallel to the grain rather than for timber with perpendicular to the grain Graphs We will write a custom essay sample on Tensile Test Lab Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Tensile Test Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Tensile Test Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Stress-strain or load-extension graphs have a different form depending on the structure of material and of these graphs can be divided to two different regions: elastic deformation and plastic. Elastic deformation occurs in the region where the curve behaves linearly and after the removing the load material will return to its initial shape. When the elasticity ends the plastic region begins. In plastic region strain can increase significantly whereas stress increases with smaller increment. If the unloading happens the curve will fall parallel to the elastic region. The Stress-Strain graphs have the same shape as Load-Extension graphs. To prove that the stress-strain curves were sketched for three different types of metal: low-carbon steel, high-carbon steel and aluminum. The data used during plotting the stress-strain graphs is represented in Appendix. The graphs for low- carbon (0. 15%) steel (See Figure 1 2). Figure 2. The stress-strain graph for low-carbon steel It can be seen from the graphs that at the beginning the curve behaves linearly until it reaches approximately 14. Non (See Figure 1). Therefore, this section of the graph can be called the elastic region. Then the plastic region begins, and the curve reaches its maximum point at 15. Ink. After that the load decreases gradually for the bigger increment of extension until the break occurs (at 10. Non). The graphs for High-carbon (0. 4%) steel. Figure 4. The Stress-Strain Graph for High-carbon steel The graph for high-carbon steel is similar to the graph for the low-carbon steel. However, the maximum stress in the graph for high-carbon steel is more by non, and equal to the 19. Non. Also it can be seen that the length of high-carbon steel before the failure is less than for low-carbon steel. The elastic region continues until it reaches 12. Ink, and the plastic region ends when specimen breaks at 16. Ink. The graphs for Aluminum. Figure 6. The Stress-Strain Graph for Aluminum The shape of the curve in the graph is similar to the graphs for the steel. However, it can be noticed that the maximum load for aluminum is much less than for steel. Consequently, the load at elastic limit and fail ure load are also small (5. Ink and 3. Ink respectively). The causes of difference of the graphs will be given in Discussion part. The Figures 7-10 illustrate the tension test for timber samples when the load was applied parallel to the grain. From these graphs it is easy to see that the elastic region is very small for timber. In contrast, the plastic deformation takes the bigger region for the large extension. In addition, the specimens break when the maximum load is applied, and it seems that the failure occurs several times. The cause of this behavior is that all grains do not break at one time. The Figures 11-12 show the load-extension graphs for specimens when the load was applied perpendicular to the grain. It can be seen that the failure occurs at small applied load with comparison to other materials. The elastic regions for these specimens are bigger than for samples parallel to the grain. The extension is very small. The calculation of the mean stress, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and characteristic value The mean stress is the arithmetical average of failure stresses: mom=on 7 Where o is the sum of the failure stresses for timber specimens when the load was applied parallel to the grain, and n is the number of specimens. Amp The standard deviation is the degree of spread about the mean stress and it can be calculated as: so=(o-mom)an (8) Where so is variation, s is the standard deviation and o is the failure stresses. Mama s=9. 44 Amp The coefficient of variation: c=somas 9 The calculated result for coefficient of variation (26. %) for this timber was accurate enough as the coefficient of variation for timber must vary from to 30%. The characteristic stress is: char=mom-KS 10 Where k is the standard deviation multiplication factor, and KS is the margin. There kiss equal to the 1. 64 (1 in 20 failure rate). Discussion Firstly, it was noticed that the properties vary depending on the amount of carbon added to the steel. Adding the carbon increases the strength of steel thereby it makes the steel become more brittle. Therefore, the strain for high- carbon steel is less than for low-carbon one, and the maximum stress of low- carbon steel is less than for high-carbon one. Also as the strain or both low and high carbon steel is more than 5% it can be said that they are ductile materials. Secondly, as the strain for the aluminum specimen is less than 1% it seems that it is brittle material. However, the graphs for brittle materials have a little plastic region or even do not have this region. But there is significant plastic region in the Figure 5. It can be predicted that the main causes of that are the defects in the aluminum specimen and the errors related to the equipment. Thirdly, unlike all other materials the graphs for the timber specimens have upturn before failure. The Figures 7-10 are for the same material as timber with grains parallel to the load; however, these graphs differ from each other. Because all specimens do not have the same structure of grains and have different dimensions, also they can have defects as timber is the natural material. Fourthly, the timber specimens with grains perpendicular to the load are the most brittle among other tested materials. As the grains are not connected strongly the failure load of the specimen is not large. Finally, all of the graphs do not show ideal expectations and the possible sources of error are that the specimens were to fixed properly before the test, the material have the defects (was not homogeneous), reduction of decimal points during calculations and errors of the equipment. Conclusion To sum up, the properties such as elastic limit stress, nominal and true failure stresses, etc. Ere obtained. The graphs of stress versus strain were plotted for each type of metals and the graphs of load versus extension were represented with comments for each specimen. The mean stress, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and characteristic stress were calculated for timber samples with grains parallel to the grain. Also the figures of materials after the allure were sketched. In conclusion, the low-carbon stress is more elastic, and the high-carbon stress is stronger. The timber with grains parallel to the load can hold more load than those with perpendicular.